Tuesday, December 12, 2017

Public officials named in new findings from FBI probe of Chinese Triad, ‘Shrimp Boy’ Chow

Mayor Ed Lee and other public officials are named in details from an FBI probe into state Sen. Leland Yee and Raymond “Shrimp Boy” Chow. (Mike Koozmin/S.F. Examiner)
According to a Tuesday filing by Chow’s attorneys in federal court, which includes never-before-released details and names from a yearlong investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Mayor Lee, some of The City’s leadership, an Alameda County prosecutor and a state official were all named in alleged wrongdoing caught on tape or witnessed by undercover FBI agents or their sources.
The allegations are outlined in the documents, but those named have not been charged in relation to the investigation, and several have denied the allegations.
Lee said he hadn’t read the documents in detail, and the parts he read were repetitious. “He’s trying to get off the trial, Mr. Raymond Chow. He’s doing anything he can. I have to take it with a grain of salt,” Lee said Tuesday.
He continued, “I ran a clean campaign … just last week the Ethics Commission closed out our campaign … if we did anything improperly, it would’ve shown up.”
In March 2014, law enforcement raids across the Bay Area detained more than 20 people, including former state Sen. Leland Yee, former school board member Keith Jackson and Chow.
The arrests stemmed from a federal indictment alleging, among other things, that Chow headed an organized gang outfit in Chinatown and that Yee and Jackson committed a series of crimes to further Yee’s political ambitions. Yee and Jackson have since pleaded guilty to racketeering and other charges.
The Tuesday filing on behalf of Chow requests the case against him be dismissed because of alleged selective prosecution, pointing out that numerous public officials were caught up in FBI surveillance but never indicted.
“The government has admitted the political corruption investigation which sought to ensnare many Bay Area political figures, was instigated contrary to desire of the government; what it has not admitted is that it resulted in snagging at least a dozen bottom feeding political types,” said the filing by Chow’s legal team, which includes attorneys Tony Serra, Curtis Briggs and Greg Bentley.
The filing, which quotes and references FBI wiretaps, body wires, agents and sources, gives a new glimpse into the breadth and depth of the yearlong FBI probe into organized crime in Chinatown and alleged political corruption in San Francisco, the Bay Area and state.
The U.S. Attorney’s office did not return calls for comment on the case.
THE FILING
The alleged misconduct started at the top, according to the filing and its FBI sources.
“The FBI alleged in discovery that Ed Lee took substantial bribes in exchange for favors,” notes the filing, which goes on to say that then-Human Rights Commissioner Nazly Mohajer and commission staff member Zula Jones facilitated those exchanges.
Jones was reported by the FBI to have said that former mayor Willie Brown taught Lee to do business, according to the filing.
“You got to pay to play here. We got it. We know this. We are the best at this game … better than New York. We do it a little more sophisticated than New Yorkers. We do it without the mafia,” Jones reportedly said.
Mohajer allegedly “explained the process by which she launders Ed Lee’s campaign money,” said the filing, which went on to say that Lee took $20,000 in campaign contributions, gifts and trips in his first four months in office. The filing alleges Jones and Mohajer said Lee “knew he was taking the money illegally.”
Lee attended a meeting on April 6, 2012, with Jackson, Jones, Mohajer and an undercover FBI agent (UCE-4773) posing as a businessman, according to the filing. Mohajer then introduced the agent to Lee as an “individual who had raised $10,000 to assist in retiring the campaign debt.”
The campaign contribution limit in local races is $500.
The San Francisco Examiner asked the mayor about that meeting, and he replied, “I can’t remember everybody that I meet. I met a lot of people during the 2011 campaign.”
In the video below, Mayor Ed Lee responds to reporters’ questions about the allegations. Video by Joe Fitzgerald Rodriguez.
Neither Mohajer, who is no longer a commissioner, or Jones could not be reached for comment.
In 2000, Jones was a contract compliance officer for the San Francisco Human Rights Commission who was indicted along with a mechanical contracting firm for an alleged scheme to defraud The City. The charges were eventually dropped.
But others in City Hall also seem to have taken part in this kind of behavior, according to the filing.
Board of Supervisors President London Breed, specifically, is named in the filing as a politician who one can pay for access and favors.
In Breed’s case, according to the filing, Derf Butler, a politically connected businessman who worked for Yee with Jackson, told an FBI source that he “pays Supervisor Breed with untraceable debit cards for clothing and trips in exchange for advantages on contracts in San Francisco.”
Breed denied the claim Tuesday.
“That’s absolutely false. I can’t be responsible for what other people say,” Breed said. “Where’s the evidence? Where’s the proof? I can say without a doubt that I didn’t take anything from anybody. If I had, I would probably be prosecuted as well.”

Butler could not be reached for comment.
The filing also touches on the head of the local chapter of the NAACP. For instance, on April 12, 2013, a phone tap recorded Jackson calling Butler and talking about NAACP president Rev. Amos Brown’s house being fixed in exchange for some unsaid favor from former Housing Authority head Henry Alvarez.
“They got evidence that he was getting his damn house fixed on,” Jackson was recorded to have said. “Henry was sending people over there doing shit for Reverend Brown.”
When asked about the filing, Brown denied its veracity. “It’s nothing but a lie,” said Brown. “That is a lie.”
OTHER OFFICIALS NAMED
San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency employee Sululagi Palega was also named in the FBI’s investigation and allegedly sold a gun to an agent.
According to the filing, on March 21, 2013, an undercover FBI agent (UCE-4599) met with Palega in the agent’s car.
“Palega handed UCE-4599 a See’s candy bag. In the bag was a .45-caliber revolver. Palega told UCE-4599 to ‘enjoy the candy,’” according to the filing, which referenced FBI discovery.
Later, over lunch with Jackson and his son, Brandon, Palega was given “$500 for the .45-caliber Magnum handgun he previously gave UCE-4599. Palega then told UCE-4599 that he ‘talked to his guy and whenever you are ready,’” according to the filing.
Palega, who works in the SFMTA’s ambassador program for young adults, could not be reached for comment.
The FBI investigation also reached beyond San Francisco, according to the filing. In following Yee’s efforts to collect campaign funds for his failed mayoral push, the FBI seems to have uncovered efforts by an Alameda County’s Assistant District Attorney to do the same.
On Nov. 30, 2012, the FBI recorded Yee getting a call from Alameda County Deputy District Attorney Sharmin Bock to discuss campaign contributions. Bock ran unsuccessfully for San Francisco District Attorney in 2011.
“Just to let you know, all the checks have been vetted,” Yee said in the recording. Bock then replied: “It’s not like strip club money or anything like that right? I’m good,” according to the documents.
In another recorded phone conversation between Jackson and Butler on April 6, 2013, they talk about exchanging money for Yee and Bock.
“Check that we gave that politician, DA, whoever, it didn’t go through, what’s going on?” asked Jackson.
An unnamed FBI agent wrote of that exchange: “I believe this conversation related to Jackson helping Yee swap checks with Sharmin Bock to circumvent campaign financing laws.”
Bock did not return several calls for comment.
Campaign filings in San Francisco show both Yee and Bock had the same political consultant, Jim Stearns.
STATE OFFICIALS 
The investigation also reached into state government. The filing mentions a recorded phone call between Taj Reid and Eric Worthen, a former official in the state’s veterans affairs department.
Worthen was legislative director for Yee from 2010 to 2011. Reid is listed as living at the same address as Oakland City Councilman Larry Reid.
On April 16, 2013, the FBI taped a phone call between Reid and Worthen about a construction contract that an FBI source called CHS No. 11 (confidential human source number 11) planned to bid on.
On April 17, 2013, a meeting was recorded between Worthen, Reid and CHS No. 11 in San Francisco to plan their discussion detailing how the scheme would work.
In the scheme, CHS No. 11 would pay the other two men $10,000, and in return Worthen would manipulate the bidding processing for a veteran’s home project in Ventura.
According to the documents, Worthen said in the recording that he could pass along internal department documents so CHS No. 11 would know what he was up against. “I will make sure that you have the general … the basic specs … once it goes up,” said Worthen in the filing. Reid added that with Worthen in their corner, “You know when everything goes down, [CHS No. 11] gonna get the job.”
The source called CHS No. 11, then said, “Let’s keep it on the hush on any job [Worthen] has coming through the pipeline agency. If you know, that is the play. That’s the play right there. And keep it in this room.”
Worthen then tells the two, “I always worry about me first and foremost before anything and everyone.”
To that CHS No. 11 replied: “You are going out on a ledge … and you know this is a deep ledge … and so I we got to be tight and trust each other…”
“I believe these comments indicate Worthen and Reid are arranging a bribery conspiracy whereby Worthen will use his discretionary authority as the Deputy Assistant Administrator of the California Department of Veterans Affairs to deliver a development deal to CHS #11 in exchange for money,” wrote an unnamed FBI agent.
Worthen had no comment when contacted by the San Francisco Examiner. Reid could not be reached for comment.
San Francisco Examiner Staff Writer Joe Fitzgerald Rodriguez contributed to this report.
Below is a copy of the filing, which does not include the exhibits.

Scandal Plagued San Francisco Mayor Ed Lee Dead At 65..[Triad?] The Good, The Bad, The Ugly

Scandal Plagued San Francisco Mayor Ed Lee Dead At 65Image result for Ed Lee San Francisco Scandal
December 12, 2017
SAN FRANCISCO (CBS SF) — San Francisco Mayor Ed Lee, who became the city’s first Asian-American mayor when he was named to serve out the remainder of Gavin Newsom’s term in Jan. 2011, died suddenly early Tuesday morning, city officials said.
He was 65.
In accordance with the City Charter, Board of Supervisors President London Breed became Acting Mayor of San Francisco, effectively immediately. Breed becomes San Francisco’s first female African American mayor in any capacity.
In a short news release, officials said Lee passed away on Tuesday, December 12 at 1:11 a.m. at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital. Family, friends and colleagues were at his side.
“Mayor Lee arrived shortly after 10 p.m. He was in critical condition,” said Dr. Susan Ehrlich, the chief executive officer at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital. “We attempted life-saving measures for several hours.”
At a morning news conference, Breed said the city has suffered a major loss.
“He was from the dawn of his career an advocate for the powerless, a voice for overlooked,” she said of Lee. “Someone who fought for those in need before himself. That commitment to others defined the mayor’s three decades of public service.”
She ordered flags to be at half staff for the next 30 days.
Former San Francisco Mayor Willie Brown, a close personal friend of Lee’s, said the mayor was shopping at the Diamond Heights Safeway when he suffered a heart attack at around 10:30 p.m. He collapsed and was rushed to the hospital.
“(Lee’s wife) Anita sent him to do his family chores,” Brown said. “He never moved away from being a husband and a father as a mayor.”
His death was announced by officials early Tuesday.
“It is with profound sadness and terrible grief that we confirm that Mayor Edwin M. Lee passed away,” the statement read. “Our thoughts and prayers are with his wife Anita, his two daughters, Brianna and Tania, and his family.”
Lee was appointed as mayor by the Board of Supervisors on January 11, 2011 after Newsom resigned to become Lieutenant Governor. He won election on Nov. 8, 2011 and was re-elected in 2015.
Lee was among four candidates to replace Newsom, but initially said he was not interested in the job. At the urging of Brown, the late Chinatown power broker Rose Pak and Sen. Dianne Feinstein, he tossed his name into the selection process.
“Those of us who helped orchestrate his selection as interim mayor knew he was going to be an important figure,” Brown told KPIX 5. “He clearly was important in the symbolism of the mayorship. His being the first person of Asian descent in a major American city in this nation was in and of itself decisive.”
As he talked about Lee, who was head of purchasing and public works for the city when Brown was mayor, his voice cracked with emotion.
“I don’t know San Francisco without Ed Lee,” Brown said. “He was a part of everything. He was the human rights director. He was head of purchasing during my administration. He was head of public works. He became the CAO (chief administrative officer) for the city… I just can’t imagine the city without Ed Lee.”
Feinstein called it “sad day for San Francisco.”
“Early this morning I learned of Ed Lee’s death,” Feinstein said in a statement. “It’s a very sad day for San Francisco and all of us who knew Ed. My thoughts turn to all of Ed’s family, especially Anita, Brianna and Tania. I know what this is like and wish I could give Anita a hug and express my sorrow.”
“Ed was an excellent mayor of a great but sometimes challenging city. His equanimity and quiet management style was effective and allowed him to solve problems as they occurred,” she continued. “My heart and thoughts are with Ed’s family and friends and the city I love.”
New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio took to Twitter to offer his condolences.
“Deeply saddened to hear of the death of Mayor Ed Lee,” de Blasio wrote. “He was a good friend and a tireless fighter for the people of San Francisco. Our thoughts are with his family.”
Senator Kamala Harris also was stunned by Lee’s death.
“I am deeply saddened by the passing of my friend, San Francisco Mayor Ed Lee,” she wrote on Twitter. “He was a fierce advocate for civil rights and worked tirelessly for workers’ rights and his leadership will be missed. Keeping the mayor’s family in my prayers during this difficult time.”
San Jose Mayor Sam Liccardo added his condolences.
“A dear friend & colleague @mayoredlee has left us too early,” he tweeted. “Ed was a good and incredibly gracious man, at a time when goodness, graciousness, and civility are not sufficiently valued in public life. My heart goes out to Ed’s family, Anita, Tania, & Brianna.”
Over the last year, Lee has been at loggerheads with President Donald Trump over immigration. San Francisco, under Lee, has been a leader among American cities in the Sanctuary City movement.
Recently, Trump focused his ire at Lee and San Francisco after a local jury found Jose Ines Garcia Zarate — an illegal immigrant — not guilty in the fatal shooting of Kate Steinle.

Oakland sends its condolences to Anita, her daughters, and all San Franciscans today. Mayor Ed Lee served his community with passion and humility, broke historic barriers, led with a compassionate heart, and was a valued friend and colleague. He will be missed dearly.


Rest In Peace, Mayor. Wishing Ed’s family peace as they grieve. We will miss Ed dearly. He was a friend to all and the devoted servant needed during such a transformational time. https://twitter.com/nbcbayarea/status/940544039841083392 


I am deeply saddened to learn that San Francisco Mayor Ed Lee, an unshakable force for good in SF & the entire Bay Area, has passed. My condolences are with his family, friends, loved ones and the people of San Francisco during this difficult time. https://twitter.com/sfchronicle/status/940546343684079616 




We were deeply saddened and shocked to learn of the sudden passing of Mayor Ed Lee. He was a true San Franciscan who devoted his life to serving our great city and to supporting those most in need. He was the Giants' number one fan (con’d)

Lee served was a director of San Francisco’s Human Rights Commission from 1991 to 1996 and served Newsom as the City Administrator from 2005 to 2011. He grew up in public housing in Seattle and worked early in his career as a civil rights attorney often representing low-income tenants.
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China’s Shift Towards California’s Gold Mountain




William Craddick's picture

Image result for China’s Shift Towards California’s Gold Mountain
The relationship between China and the West Coast of the United States has steadily grown for more than a century and a half. Chinese immigrants departed en mass to seek fortune in California's Gold Rushand provided the muscle for the Union Pacific during the construction of the Transcontinental Railway. In recent history however, China's involvement in California has taken on a new form. The increased involvement of Chinese funding of politicians, a shift in Chinese organized crime in California towards pro-Beijing factions and an increase in open diplomatic accommodation of the Chinese government all raise questions about China's long term goals in the Golden State.
I. Increasing Chinese Political Investments In California
As China's economy has grown over the past several decades, so too have donations and support for political figures in California. The increase in Chinese financial support has been accompanied by accusations of impropriety, as multiple California politicians have been found to be accepting potentially illegal gifts or donations.
A. San Francisco
San Francisco's mayor Ed Mah Lee has a history of financial support from Chinese interests, as well as the open endorsement of public figures in the city with established ties to the Communist Party of China (CCP). In August 2016, The Intercept reported that Lee was a noted beneficiary of Gordon Tang and Huaidan Chen, a married Chinese couple residing in Singapore. Tang and Chen were also major supporters of 2016 Republican presidential candidate Jeb Bush, donating $1.3 million to Bush's Right to Rise USA Super PAC. A complaint was filed with the Federal Election Committee over the donations to Bush. Tang has a notable history of investments in the United States, but has also fielded controversy as well. When contacted by a journalist from The Intercept, Tang offered a bribe of $200,000 in return for an omission of the fact that Chinese language news sites accuse Tang of participating in smuggling, tax evasion, and bribery in the Guangdong Province of China.
Lee also enjoyed long-time support from recently-deceased San Francisco figure Rose Pak. Pak served as an executive director of the China Overseas Exchange Association, a foreign affairs group under the direction of China's State Council Overseas Chinese Affairs Office. In the past, Pak has consistently advocated for pro CCP policies, including marginalizing Falun Gong practitioners and appearing at anti-Japanese protests during tensions between Japan and China over the Diaoyu Islands. San Francisco Supervisor Chris Daly directly accused Pak of improperly acting as an agent of the Chinese government. Local news source SFGate noted that Daly met with the FBI to discuss Pak's ties to China in 2006. In 2013, SFGate also reported that three complaints were filed over a trip that Ed Lee took with Pak to China where Lee was the benefactor of a number of potentially illegal gifts totaling $18,000 to cover expenses.
Ed Lee raises the Chinese flag with China's consul general over San Francisco's city hall. Credit News.CN
In late September 2016, Lee took part in festivities for China's National Day, the anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). As part of the holiday, Lee flew the Chinese flag over San Francisco's city hall alongside Chinese consul general Luo Linquan. Also in attendance at the event was San Francisco businesswoman Florence Fang. Fang has expressed "undying patriotism" for China and has in the past taking strong stances in support of China's claims to Taiwan, labelling the island state a "fake democracy."
While participating in National Day celebrations, Lee was caught on camera making extremely improper gestures of loyalty to the Chinese government. On September 28th, 2016, video posted to Twitter by China Daily (0:20-0:24) shows Lee placing his right hand over his heart during China's national anthem at an event held by the PRC consulate-general in San Francisco. Lee's attendance at the event was not reported by any local San Francisco media outlets, was not mentioned on the mayor's Twitter account. The San Francisco website for the office of the mayor similarly carried no mention of the event and misleadingly stated that Ed Lee would be carrying out meetings at city hall "all day" despite the fact that he attended the event at the Chinese consulate.
Ed Lee holds his hand over his heart for Chinese national anthem alongside consul general Luo Linquan. Credit China Daily
Lee routinely participates in National Day events, including in 2014 when he was criticized by activists for playing a role in National Day celebrations while China's government was cracking down on pro-democracy protestors in Hong Kong. Despite the fact that Chinese Americans of Taiwanese origin also celebrate Taiwan’s “Double-Ten” National Day in the San Francisco Bay Area, Lee does not attend the events or raise the Taiwanese flag above city hall.
Lee is not the only Bay Area politician with a connection to China. Disobedient Media has reported that the mayors of Oakland and Berkeley have ties to groups and individuals who have been the subject of FBI investigations for their ties to the CCP.
B. Los Angeles 
Chinese businesses have also begun to increase investment and financial involvement with Los Angeles politicians as well. The Los Angeles Business Journal has highlighted a dramatic increase of Chinese investment in the film industry as well as LA real estate. China is Los Angeles' largest trading partner, with $164.38 billion in trade to the city in 2013. This increase in investment is welcomed by mayor Eric Garcetti, who has endeavored to court Chinese businesses since his election in 2013. In 2014 and 2016, Garcetti led trade delegations from the United States to China with the stated goal of increasing tourism and encouraging companies to invest in Los Angeles. Garcetti has additionally hosted a number of climate change summits in 2014 and 2015.
MyNewsLA reported that Garcetti's 2016 delegation included John Podesta. Podesta has come under fire for improper foreign influence peddling after Wikileaks releases showed that Podesta concealed 75,000 shares he held in Russian-financed Joule Unlimited Technologies, Inc. and a report by the Daily Caller indicated Podesta's lobbying firm failed to disclose lucrative work it did for Ukrainian politicians with ties to the Russian government and former Trump campaign manager Paul Manafort. The report stated that Garcetti also met with Wang Jianlin, chairman of Dalian Wanda Group. Disobedient Media has previously reported on Jianlin's drive to buy up Hollywood media groups as the mogul has increased his rhetoric against the American government and become involved in a scandal involving the mayor of New York, Bill de Blasio.
The efforts to court Chinese investment in Los Angeles have also coincided with an increase in political donations from companies who are have business ventures in China. In 2014, Garcetti announced the launch of the Mayor's Fund for Los Angeles. The Los Angeles Timesreported that while companies who hold contracts with the City of Los Angeles are barred from making contributions to candidates for city office, they are able to support Garcetti by donating to the nonprofit since these funds are not subject to the same legal restrictions. The Mayor's Fund raised over $14 million in its first year of operations, spending less than of that amount on the civil initiatives it says it supports. An examination of the Mayor's Fund's tax records from the fiscal years of 20132014, and 2015 show a pattern of spending less than the amount the Fund raises each year. The documents also reveal that the only one of the Fund's listed officers spends on average more than two hours working for the nonprofit.
The Mayor's Fund website includes a list of supporters which lists corporations such as the Energy Foundation China and multinational engineering firm AECOM, which has previously been involved with major infrastructure projects in China. An examination of the Energy Foundation's website as well as the official attendee list for the 2015 Los Angeles Climate Leaders Summit shows that both companies were in attendance. As the Mayor's Fund does not list the names of its contributors in its tax filings, it is impossible to determine how much support these companies gave to the Fund or what the money was ultimately used for.
Garcetti has previously had brushes with funding scandals involving Chinese investors. In 2016, The Los Angeles Times reported that Garcetti was one of a number of LA-area politicians to receive funding from donors directly or indirectly related to China-born Samuel Leung of Palos Verdes, California between 2008 and 2015. Leung was accused of making the donations to gain approval of a $72 million development in Los Angeles' Harbor Gateway neighborhood. At one critical point, Garcetti invoked a mayoral prerogative (which he had used only twice before) to reduce the number of council votes required to approve the project by changing zoning laws. Although the Los Angeles District Attorney's Office said they would review the case in October 2016, no charges appear to have been filed so far.
II. Chinese Takeover Of California's Asian Organized Crime
China has also begun to exert increasing influence over Californian Chinese organized crime groups, using Hong Kong based Triads who are allied with Beijing's government. This shift has been marked by the murder of a number of organization heads over the past decade.
A. San Francisco
On February 27th, 2006, Chinese American Allen Leung was murdered by a masked assailant in San Francisco. Police described the assassination as "premeditated." Leung was a businessman who also served as the "dragon head" of the Hop Sing Tong, Chee Kung Tong and Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association, which is traditionally supportive of Taiwan's Kuomintang government. Tongs are Chinese fraternal secret societies originally founded to protect Chinese migrants from harassment and discrimination which continue to provide essential services for Chinatown communities. However, they have also routinely been infiltrated by and affiliated with organized crime groups. The 19th and 20th centuries frequently saw brazen assassinations and gang wars which local Californian newspapers at the time documented as common in cities such as San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle and Portland. Though violence between tongs became less overt, the New York Times has noted that it has continued over time.
The Chicago Tribune established that Leung was well known for his opposition to Chinese communists and his funeral was attended by a "Cabinet-level dignitary from Taiwan" who spoke about Leung's loyalty to those who fled China after the communists took power in 1949. The Tribune cited speculation that Leung's death was related to conflict between those who supported Chinese exiles in Taiwan, and younger generation who believes it is time to build relationships with the mainland. Pro-Taiwanese factions had also been growing weak due to decreased financial support. Leung became so concerned about the danger posed to him by younger members of the Hop Sing Tong that he reached out to the FBI for assistance prior to his death (an unheard of occurrence in a community wary of law enforcement).
Leung's successor, Raymond "Shrimp Boy" Chow, was accused by Federal prosecutors of arranging the assassination of Leung. SF Weekly reported that Chow was born in Hong Kong and immigrated to the United States in his teens after joining the Triads as a nine year old. Once in California, Chow worked with Peter Chong, an alleged crime boss with the Hong Kong Triad Wo Hop To tasked with establishing the Triad as the dominant Chinese criminal power in the United States. Court filings allege that Chong and Raymond Chow were involved in the attempted murder of a rival gang member in Boston, and the Senate Government Affairs Permanent Investigations Subcommitteeacknowledged Wo Hop To as the dominant power in San Francisco by 1991. Briefly jailed in 2000 after an extradition to the U.S. from Hong Kong, reports state that Chong is believed by authorities to have returned to crime and the Hop Sing Tong after his release in 2008.
Raymond "Shrimp Boy" Chow. Credit Jen Siska
A 1997 report by The New Republic has cited statements by Chinese officials, documenting a now longstanding alliance of convenience between the Chinese government and Triad groups in Hong Kong including Wo Hop To. The policy was aimed at drawing the Triads away from Taiwan towards China. In return for their loyalty to Beijing and pledge to not disrupt Hong Kong's stability, China has allowed these groups to operate freely and expand into the mainland. Chinese president Deng Xiaoping made multiple comments in 1983 and 1984 where he spoke positively of the Triads, labelling them as "patriotic." The murder of Allen Leung raises questions about whether or not Chinese supported Triad organizations are now assisting the government by removing ideological opponents in the United States.
Raymond Chow was also implicated in a weapons smuggling plot involving a Californian politician who strongly supported gun control which would keep legal arms out of the hands of citizens. A 2014 FBI press release listed Chow as one of a number of defendants arrestedalong with California State Senator Leland Yee. San Francisco Magazine revealed that Yee was working with Islamic rebel groups in the Philippines to import firearms and heavier weapons such as rockets.
Image result for arrested along with California State Senator Leland Yee
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B. Los Angeles
Opponents of Wo Hop To have also recently met violent deaths in Los Angeles as well. On January 27th, 2017, the Los Angeles Times reported a double murder in the main hall of the Los Angeles Hop Sing Tong. Though the Times would not mention the deceased by name, Northwest Asian Weekly listed them as the club's president, Tony Young, and club member Kim Kong Yon. A 1994 report by the Los Angeles Times named Young as the head of the Wah Ching (??), one of California's largest Chinese organized crime groups and a major rival of the Wo Hop To, who supplanted them in the Bay Area. Wo Hop To's regional head Peter Chong was questioned for his alleged involvement in the 1991 murder of Wah Ching leader Danny Wong. Wong's death was seen as a significant development in the competition between Wo Hop To and Wah Ching for control of the crime world in San Francisco.
The murder of a Wo Hop To rival gang leader represents a potential expansion attempt by Triad groups who are known to act as foreign policy tools of the Chinese government. NBC News reported in 2013 that Triad groups were responsible for smuggling more than 100,000 Chinese nationals into the United States each year, many of whom were forced to live in economic slavery while they worked off their debt to the gangs who transported them. With Wo Hop To's expansions in California and other parts of the United States, the Chinese government will by default become increasingly involved with groups effectively practicing slave trading in America.
III. Accommodation Of Chinese Government
California has increasingly pushed a number of measures that, whether intentionally or otherwise, stand to benefit China in the long term. Asian American communities have in the recent past protested a number of actions which they felt uncomfortably normalized what they perceived to be communist ideology that was responsible for oppression and suffering in their homelands. In May 2017, a bill sponsored by Assemblyman Rob Bonta sought to remove a Cold War era ban on state employees who were members of the Communist Party. The Sacramento Bee reported that the bill was ultimately dropped and Bonta forced to apologize after facing extensive outrage from Californian veterans and members of the Vietnamese American community.
In June 2017, just days after Donald Trump's announcement that he would withdraw the United States from the Paris Climate Agreement, California signed a treaty with China aimed at reducing greenhouse emissions. Governor Jerry Brown signed the agreement with Chinese minister of science and technology Wan Gang before meeting with President Xi Jinping. Brown also signed similar agreements with leaders from Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces. The actions of California's governor in China amounts to a violation of Article I, § 10 of the Constitution, which specifically prohibits states from entering into any treaty, alliance, or confederation as this power is reserved for the Federal government.
California's pivot towards China is concerning given the increasing amounts of Chinese financial involvement with California politicians. Similarly, the shift in Californian Chinese organized crime from groups aligned with Taiwan to Triad organizations operating with the blessing of the Chinese government creates doubts about Beijing's plans for the West Coast. With California increasingly taking steps to act autonomously of the Federal government, it is likely that China's true intentions will become apparent in due time.